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Many different methods have been developed and validated using comparisons to physical experiments [16]–[60].

To combine the MCAT with these simulators, the phantom software was set up so that it could generate voxelized representations of the anatomy at any user-defined resolution.

To achieve a higher level of realism without sacrificing the flexibility of the mathematical basis, the MCAT anatomy was constructed using similar geometric primitives but used overlap, cut planes, and intersections of the geometric objects to form more realistic organ shapes for the human torso Like all computer-based phantoms, the 4-D MCAT can be used in conjunction with models of the imaging process [e.g., SPECT, PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT)].

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This would take a great amount of work and a long time to achieve since every structure in the body would have to be segmented for every phantom, most manually.

As such, they can provide vital tools to generate predictive imaging data from many different subjects under various scanning parameters from which to quantitatively evaluate and improve imaging devices and techniques.

From the MCAT to XCAT, we will demonstrate how NURBS and SD surface modeling have resulted in a major evolutionary advance in the development of computerized phantoms for imaging research.

The organs were set with their individual attenuation coefficients defined at 72 ke V.

Projection images, similar to those acquired from a patient during transmission imaging, were simulated from the voxelized attenuation coefficient phantom using a model of the projection process.

Current work in phantom development has focused on the development of “hybrid” phantoms that seek to combine the realism of a patient-based voxelized phantom with the flexibility of an equation-based mathematical phantom [14].

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